Status Report for FY 1996-97

Director’s Statement

The Pollution Prevention Assistance Division (P2AD) of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources has prepared this report to meet the requirements of the Division’s legislative mandate for biennial reporting of program activities, as codified in O.C.G.A. 12-8-186. The report details progress made in a variety of different pollution prevention activities during the third and fourth years of the Division’s operation.

I am quite proud of the Division’s accomplishments in the past two years. We have made great strides in a number of areas, including the following:

– increased pollution prevention assistance for several high priority manufacturing sectors– expansion of technical assistance programs for the agricultural and horticultural industries

– formation of the Georgia Environmental Partnership with Georgia Tech’s Economic Development Institute and the University of Georgia’s Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering

– presentation of the first Governor’s Awards for Pollution Prevention, and certification of the first group of companies as Pollution Prevention Partners

– response to an increasing number of general technical assistance requests, including on-site assessments

– improved outreach techniques, including revision of the World Wide Web page and a large number of public presentations made by Division staff

– development of environmental regional networks

– greater involvement with the Governor’s Traditional Industries Program.

The Division has also accepted a number of new responsibilities as detailed in this report, including waste reduction programs for all non-residentially generated solid waste, and the state’s radon awareness program.

Several measures indicate to us that our approach as a technical assistance, catalyst, and teaching organization in the context of a non-regulatory program has been highly effective. Our past on-site assessment clients have indicated to us that they are pleased with the Division’s services. Furthermore, several clients who have instituted comprehensive pollution prevention programs report annual savings of several million dollars, while others report annual cost savings of as much as $236,600 as a result of implementing specific pollution prevention options provided by P2AD. A second measure of our success is the many calls and visits we have received in the past two years from representatives of local, state, national, and international organizations who have been told of our success and want to learn first-hand how our pollution prevention program was started, and how it operates.

We have achieved a great deal in a short period of time, yet there is so much more pollution prevention to be accomplished. My staff and I look forward to expanding our work with the businesses in Georgia.

G. Robert Kerr, Director

Executive Summary

The Pollution Prevention Assistance Division (P2AD) has, in the past two years, become a more mature agency. Building on its foundation of technical assistance programs which were developed in the first two years of the agency’s existence, the Division now takes a variety of approaches to promoting pollution prevention in Georgia.

Core technical assistance efforts have expanded in many ways. P2AD’s Information Center grew to hold over 3,200 documents and more than 80 videos. The program responded to over 1,000 calls for technical assistance during FY 96 – FY 97, including requests for household hazardous waste and radon information. Staff made numerous presentations to state and national audiences, and the Division co-sponsored six pollution prevention workshops. P2AD also published a number of pollution prevention case studies, tip sheets, and manufacturing sector assessments. The Division-sponsored agricultural pollution prevention program had a multitude of accomplishments in the past two years, including initiation of the Farm*A*Syst pollution prevention assessment program.

The Division continued to sponsor applied research efforts in pollution prevention, and began its Pollution Prevention Partners certification program. P2AD also participated in the Neighborhood Environmental Partnership program in the West Atlanta area.

P2AD extended its efforts to form and maintain partnerships with existing entities in the state, including universities, businesses and trade associations, and other appropriate groups. These partnerships are leveraging many other individuals in the state to help promote pollution prevention. The partnerships also have allowed the Division to keep its technical staff small, while acquiring the ability to spread knowledge of pollution prevention statewide.

During this reporting period, the Division also took on some new tasks. As a result of a Memorandum of Understanding among multiple state agencies, P2AD accepted responsibility for providing assistance in non-hazardous waste reduction for industrial, commercial, and institutional businesses. P2AD also took over the state’s radon awareness program.

Chapter 1 – Historical Overview of the Pollution Prevention Assistance Division

During the 1980’s, hazardous waste was generally managed through treatment and disposal methods, and the use of pollution control (“end-of-the pipe”) technology. The Georgia Hazardous Waste Management Authority (the Authority) proposed construction of an incinerator facility to manage the state’s hazardous waste. There was significant opposition to this plan, and in 1991 the Authority restructured and expanded its mission to include development of voluntary programs to facilitate the reduction of hazardous waste at its source. This Authority source reduction program was ultimately transformed into the Pollution Prevention Assistance Division (P2AD, or the Division). P2AD was created by the Georgia General Assembly as a non-regulatory Division of the Department of Natural Resources. The Division began operation on October 1, 1993. Its continuing task is to provide technical assistance to Georgia businesses interested in voluntarily finding ways to reduce generation of solid and hazardous waste, and releases of pollutants into the air, water, and land.

During the Division’s first two years of operation, activities focused on building a foundation for the organization and development of specific pollution prevention programs to fulfill its mission. Staff were hired and trained; a mission statement, goals, and objectives were established; and an initial strategic plan written. A wide variety of programs for manufacturing industries, agriculture, government, and the general public were initiated. These included the following:

– on-site voluntary pollution prevention assessment capability– an Information Center, which provides written materials and research capability

– production of fact sheets for specific information on pollution prevention techniques

– Farm*A*Syst assessment program for the agricultural industry

– a variety of workshops and training sessions for manufacturers and businesses

– World Wide Web page

– applied pollution prevention research efforts, primarily through the Department of Energy and the awarding of a series of Pollution Prevention Action Grants

– beginning activities of the household hazardous waste program.

During 1994, the Division analyzed Toxic Release Inventory data to determine where the greatest opportunities for toxic and hazardous waste reduction existed in Georgia. As a result of this analysis, six manufacturing sectors were identified as priority sectors, and efforts began to direct sector-specific technical assistance to each of them. These sectors were: pulp and paper, metal fabrication, transportation equipment, rubber and plastics manufacturing, printing, and chemical manufacturing.

P2AD also formed a number of partnerships during its first two years of operation, including the Georgia Environmental Partnership with two university partners. The goal of all partnerships formed was to expedite delivery of pollution prevention assistance across the state and throughout the various industry and business sectors. Partners included state universities, businesses, trade associations, other government agencies, and environmental groups. Several work groups were also convened to advise the Division on specific programs.

Chapter 2 – Mission Statement

The mission of the Pollution Prevention Assistance Division is to develop programs and activities to facilitate reduction of pollution at the source and instill a pollution prevention ethic which is consistent with the protection of human health and the environment.

Guiding Philosophies

The Pollution Prevention Assistance Division operates under three basic guiding philosophies.

– To serve as an assistance organization

– To serve as a catalyst organization

– To serve as a teaching organization

Chapter 3 – Approaches to Promoting Pollution Prevention

The Pollution Prevention Assistance Division approaches promotion of pollution prevention and source reduction in Georgia in many ways. The following sections of this chapter discuss the basic approaches used by P2AD in pursuing the Division’s mission, while adhering to the Division’s core philosophies.

Section 1 – Technical Assistance

One of the Division’s guiding philosophies is to provide assistance in the voluntary reduction of pollution. P2AD provides free, confidential, technical assistance to Georgia businesses, industries, and the general public on a voluntary basis. Technical assistance is provided in many forms, and can include the following components: access to the P2AD Information Center, on-site assessments, workshops and training sessions, presentations at various conferences and events, publications, and expanded assistance through the Division’s partnerships. Clients requesting assistance generally fall into one of four categories: manufacturers, commercial/institutional, agriculture, or the general public. As discussed in Chapter 1, much of the initial assistance efforts were directed at reduction of toxic wastes generated by manufacturing industries. Several events in the last two years have resulted in an increase of P2AD’s technical assistance endeavors, including an expansion of existing and the formation of new partnerships, adoption of a multi-agency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) regarding solid waste assistance in the state, and the establishment of Household Hazardous Waste Prevention and Management, and Radon Awareness programs.

Information Center

The Division houses an Information Center, which is serviced by a technical staff person, and contains approximately 3,200 documents, journal articles, and books pertaining to pollution prevention, solid waste reduction, household hazardous waste, and radon. Additionally, the Center maintains files on approximately 500 vendors, subscribes to over 55 current periodicals, and owns over 80 videos. Requests for assistance are received via telephone, mail, e-mail, and fax. The Information Center also provides research of pollution prevention options and information to support P2AD staff conducting on-site assessment work. In addition, P2AD maintains a presence on the DNR World Wide Web site which provides public access to technical reports, the latest newsletter, fact sheets, tip sheets, information about the Division, and a list of links to other pollution prevention sites. P2AD’s e-mail address is, and the Web page is located at

On-site Assessments

On-site assistance to industry and business involves a visit or series of visits by an engineer or team of engineers, comprised of P2AD staff and/or staff from Division partners (see Partnership section of this chapter for more details). On-site work focuses on delineation of specific waste-generating processes at the facility, characterization of waste streams, and identification of viable pollution prevention or recycling options to reduce the waste streams. Assessment approaches vary depending on the size of the facility, the level of resources available from the company, and the company’s areas of concern or interest. After an assessment is performed, a written report and/or fact sheet is developed, which offers pollution prevention options, a simple cost-benefit analysis of each option (whenever possible), and an estimate of potential waste reduction expected to result from implementation of the suggested options. The report and/or fact sheet is then provided to the company. Implementation of any of the suggestions is voluntary, and the final report becomes the property of the company.

Approximately six months after the final assessment report is delivered, clients are surveyed to determine the degree of option implementation, and satisfaction level experienced with P2AD’s services. Past surveys indicate that 80% of the respondents had implemented at least two of the pollution prevention opportunities presented to them as a result of the Division’s work. The surveys also indicate an associated annual cost savings ranging from $600 to $236,600 for each company that implemented at least some of the suggested options.

Regional Environmental Networks

During FY 97, P2AD and Georgia Tech Economic Development Institute (EDI) initiated a series of regional environmental network meetings in 12 locations around the state. Networks have been established in Dalton, Cartersville, Athens, Morrow, LaGrange, Macon, Augusta, Savannah, Dublin, Columbus, Albany, and Douglas. The objective of the networks is to address and facilitate the solving of waste reduction problems on a local level, and also to encourage regional recycling market development. Each network meets quarterly, and the meetings provide a forum for local industry representatives and other interested parties to learn about diverse topics such as the services provided by GEP, ISO14000, SARA Title III, and risk management planning. Topics vary according to regional business needs and interests. For example, “Solvent Reduction in the Carpet Industry” was a subject discussed at a Dalton regional network meeting, due to the concentration of carpet companies in this area. Eventually, member industries and businesses in these groups will be encouraged to set up regional waste exchanges.


A variety of workshops were held during the reporting period. They mostly focused on various high-priority industry sectors for the purpose of training facility representatives in pollution prevention techniques appropriate for each sector. Workshops are listed in the following table.

Table 1 – FY 96-97 Workshops

Workshop Title Date Attendees
Pollution Prevention for GA Food Processors March 1996 Attended by representatives from seven major GA food processors
Wood Finishers and Furniture Manufacturers Workshop and Teleconference – held in cooperation with EPD Held twice during September 1996 Combined attendance at the two sessions of 134
Energy Efficiency and Waste Reduction in the Carpet Industry November 1996 36 carpet company representatives
Georgia Printer Partnership – Increasing Profits and Reducing Waste – held in cooperation with EPD January 1997 63 attendees
Solvent Reduction in the Carpet Industry February 1997 70 attendees
Shop Talk – Metal Finishing Made a Little Easier – held in cooperation with Alabama’s Waste Reduction and Technology Transfer Foundation May 1997 41 attendees


In addition to speaking at regional network meetings and workshops, P2AD management and staff also made 118 presentations before a combined audience of approximately 4,000 people during FY 96 – FY 97. A representative selection of audiences spoken to includes: the Georgia Mining Association, Georgia Clean and Beautiful, a variety of Chamber of Commerce groups, the Printing Industry Association of Georgia, a delegation of Nigerians, and the Southern Aerosol Technical Association. Presentations were also made at a number of conferences, such as the National Household Hazardous Waste Conference, Georgia Water and Pollution Control Association Industrial Conference, Red Clay Conference, Georgia Recycling Coalition Annual Conference, and the Georgia Fire Symposium. Finally, P2AD management and staff made presentations on pollution prevention topics to students and faculty at several local universities.


The Division publishes a quarterly newsletter, From the Source, which typically includes a summary of the latest initiatives of the Division, highlighted pollution prevention opportunities for industry, and pollution prevention case studies. Sector assessments were written for each of the high priority sectors identified in the Toxic Release Inventory data study mentioned in Chapter 1. A total of 41 case studies and tip sheets focusing on the targeted industrial sectors or other pollution prevention topics were produced for client use. Additionally, P2AD staff members also had technical articles published in Industrial Wastewater, Chemical Engineering, and the Southern Aerosol Technical Journal during this period.

Summary of Assistance Provided

Since the inception of the Division in October 1993, the Information Center has responded to more than 1,600 requests for technical assistance from industry, government, private citizens, non-profit groups, trade associations, consultants, and universities. During this reporting period, P2AD responded to 306 technical requests from industry, including 106 requests for on-site visits or assessments. Figure 1 above provides a breakdown of sources of the pollution prevention technical requests received during FY 96 – 97. Table 2 below provides a breakdown of the total number of requests by general type.

Table 2 – Summary of Technical Assistance FY 96 – 97

Fiscal Year # of Completed Pollution Prevention Technical Requests # of Additional On-site Visits # of Household Hazardous Waste Requests # of Radon Requests Total


1996 342 33 * * 375
1997 306 41 220 150 717
Total 648 74 220 150 1,092

* Not tracked independently during FY 96

The total number of technical requests for FY 96 – 97 is 1,092, a sharp increase over the 567 requests recorded for the FY 94 – 95 reporting period. This increase was due to the addition of the Household Hazardous Waste Prevention and Management, and Radon Awareness programs, as well as the acceptance of additional non-hazardous solid waste responsibilities, and increased outreach and partnership efforts by the Division. Also, a number of Division clients requested on-going assessment work that involved numerous site visits over the course of several months or years. This work is listed in the above table as Additional Site Visits.

The manufacturing industries that seek technical assistance with pollution prevention and waste reduction vary in size, type, and location in the state. Requests have come from industry sectors such as: pulp and paper, metal fabrication, auto parts suppliers, utilities, textile and carpet companies, mining facilities, airlines, food and beverage suppliers, and various commercial businesses. Calls by industry sectors are summarized in Figure 2 below.

Section 2 – Partnerships

P2AD has established a number of partnerships which effectively allow it to extend the reach of the Division’s assistance capabilities. This approach fits well with the Division’s core strategy of maximizing the use of existing state resources whenever possible. Partnerships have been formed with various entities to do on-site assessments, conduct workshops and training sessions, distribute information, and perform other functions.

Georgia Environmental Partnership (GEP)

The GEP is comprised of P2AD, the Georgia Institute of Technology’s Economic Development Institute (EDI), and the University of Georgia’s Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (BAE). EDI provides assistance from a main office on Georgia Tech’s campus and 18 regional offices located across the state, while BAE engineers work from the University of Georgia’s Athens campus. In addition to the traditional research and teaching functions of a university department, BAE has long been involved in environmental technical assistance to certain industry sectors (such as food processing and forest products), including assessment activities and workshops. EDI’s primary mission is improving Georgia’s economic well-being through new business development and assistance to business and industry. These three partners formed GEP as a mechanism to provide more coordinated environmental technical assistance to Georgia companies. Partnership activities have included joint on-site assessments, production of workshops, the regional environmental networks, and other activities.

BOD/COD Project

In March 1997, P2AD was presented the opportunity to partner with Dalton Utilities on a project with the goal of eliminating or delaying the need to adopt industrial wastewater pre-treatment requirements for Dalton area industrial dischargers. To accomplish this goal, P2AD and Dalton Utilities decided on a strategy of promoting voluntary water conservation and reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in industrial effluents being discharged by Dalton area manufacturers. A group of six major industrial dischargers were recruited from the Dalton area to participate in the project. Initial work was begun with two of these six manufacturers during the reporting period. Both of the initial participants have established (a) multi-disciplinary team(s) to work under P2AD guidance in conducting wastewater sampling; identifying material inputs, process parameters, and operating procedures; determining the BOD/COD contribution from each material input; conducting root cause analysis; and developing, evaluating, and implementing viable pollution prevention options. Non-proprietary elements of any successful BOD/COD reduction strategies developed as a result of this project will be used to develop case studies and fact sheets for promoting technology transfer to other project participants, and other manufacturers throughout the state. This approach will provide added benefits such as developing in-house source reduction expertise/programs in each of the participating companies, and identifying research needs/opportunities in manufacturing areas where there are currently no viable pollution prevention options available.

Project XL

A working relationship existed between Weyerhaeuser and P2AD prior to the formal beginning of Project XL, as Weyerhaeuser had previously assisted P2AD staff in the preparation of the Georgia pulp and paper sector assessment. Weyerhaeuser invited P2AD to participate in the Project XL negotiations, which also included EPD and EPA. The negotiations among the four parties were to arrive at a Final Project Agreement (FPA) that would benefit each party and result in superior environmental performance. The Project XL/FPA concept was developed by EPA under its regulatory reinvention program to allow manufacturers opportunities to develop better methods of reducing and eliminating pollution instead of traditional command and control techniques.

P2AD participated in the FPA negotiations with the goals of inclusion of strong pollution prevention methodologies, technical transferability to other industries, and clarity. As a result of the efforts of all parties, the FPA contains clear descriptions of the techniques that Weyerhaeuser is using to reduce waste at the source, the environmental benefits, and an agreement to share future feasibility studies to identify solutions to specific environmental problems. The FPA was signed by all parties in December 1996. It is anticipated that future Project XL milestones (such as completion of pollution prevention audits and feasibility studies at Weyerhaeuser of solid waste, waste water, energy, and air emissions) will provide a large amount of information that will be useful to P2AD.

Additional Partnerships

Other partnerships with the Georgia Keep America Beautiful local program affiliates, the Metro Atlanta Keep America Beautiful steering committee, and the University of Georgia’s Ornamentals Working Group were created and utilized during this reporting period. They will be further discussed later in this report in conjunction with specific program activities.

Section 3 – Recognition Program

A second guiding philosophy of the Division is to serve as a catalyst organization. One way in which P2AD encourages companies to pursue the adoption of pollution prevention in their activities is through recognition.

Pollution Prevention Partners

In 1995, with the assistance of a work group, P2AD developed guidelines for establishing a program to recognize and reward exemplary efforts in the area of pollution prevention. The underlying objective of the program was to encourage pollution prevention in Georgia industries by recognizing companies that successfully practice pollution prevention. Two types of recognition programs were established: a certification program and the Governor’s Award. These programs were launched in FY 1997.

The certification program, Pollution Prevention Partners (P3), recognizes and rewards continuous pollution prevention performance and environmental improvement among Georgia industries. There are three levels of recognition based on performance and accomplishment. The three levels in order of increasing pollution prevention performance requirements are: entry, achievement, and model.

Entry Level P3 partners must demonstrate their commitment to developing a pollution prevention program. They must create an employee awareness program, show management and employee commitment, and establish pollution prevention reduction goals.

Entry Level P3 Partners

  • Amoco Polymers, Augusta
  • Char-Broil, Columbus
  • Georgia Iron Works, Grovetown
  • Georgia Power Plant McDonough, Smyrna
  • Precision Components International, Columbus
  • PrintPack, Villa Rica
  • Southwire Building Wire Plant, Carrollton
  • Tenneco Automotive, Hartwell
  • Thomaston Mills, Thomaston

The Achievement Level recognizes companies that have implemented a pollution prevention program and established employee teams. These partners incorporate pollution prevention into their business activities, demonstrate management commitment, and encourage pollution prevention practices within the community. They must also show documented reductions in emissions and waste resulting from pollution prevention efforts.

Achievement Level P3 Partner

  • Southern Aluminum Finishing, Atlanta

The Model Level is the highest level of certification. Companies in this category are considered best-in-class facilities that have exemplary pollution prevention programs and are recognized as industry leaders and environmental stewards within their community. To these companies, pollution prevention is not just a commitment but a practice which is incorporated into all business decisions. Model Level partners not only promote the pollution prevention ethic to their employees and vendors, but encourage others in the community or their industry to incorporate daily pollution prevention practices.
Model Level P3 Partners

  • Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems, Marietta
  • Procter & Gamble Paper Products, Albany
  • Synthetic Industries, Chickamauga

As a financial incentive for Achievement and Model level companies, legislation was passed in the 1997 Georgia Legislative session which authorizes companies to receive a reduction in hazardous waste generator or Toxic Release Inventory fees. Per House Bill 510, Achievement level partners receive a 10% reduction in fees and Model level partners receive a 25% reduction, each for a maximum of three years. All P3 partners receive public recognition and various certificates, plaques, and flags commensurate with level. Applications for this program are accepted at any time.

The Governor’s Award for Pollution Prevention

In 1997, P2AD awarded the first annual Governor’s Award For Pollution Prevention. The Governor’s Award recognizes special and significant pollution prevention projects from companies and organizations in Georgia. It is a competitive award given annually to a company, individual, or organization that has demonstrated excellence in pollution prevention. The applications are judged by an independent panel representing all categories, with one winner per category. These categories are small, medium, and large industry, government/academia/commercial business, and nonprofit group/individuals. A total of 31 applications for the 1997 Governor’s Award were received from medium and large industries, universities, commercial business, local governments, and nonprofit environmental groups. These innovative projects demonstrated the voluntary commitments made by Georgia businesses and citizens to protect the air, water, and land, and conserve energy and natural resources. These projects will have a lasting effect on the environment.

Governor’s Award Winner Profile – Medium Industry

Georgia Power’s Plant McDonough was the Medium Industry winner for the 1997 Governor’s Award. their project resulted in reduced electricity usage and fuel consumption at the plant. this conserved operating energy and cost, lowered air emissions, and ultimately protected Georgia’s natural resources. The project involved seeking input from all plant employees on ideas to reduce energy consumption in their work area. The project saved 5,311 megawatt hours of electricity per year.

Governor’s Award Winner Profile – Government/Academia/Business Category

The Rome/Floyd County Recycling Center, Governor’s Award winner in the Government category, diverted 8.5 million pounds from the landfill in 1996. Proper disposal is critical in this region of Georgia since three rivers flow through the community. this facility is unique because it is the only one in the region, and because it accepts several types of special wastes, including paint, used oil, and batteries. The center also educated school children, communities, and numerous businesses on proper recycling techniques.

Governor’s Award Winner Profile – Large Industry

The Large Industry winner of the Governor’s Award, Char-Broil, switched from a standard wet paint process to a powder coating process, therefore reducing their air emissions and energy usage, and eliminating paint filter disposal. This project presented a major challenge because of the high cooking temperatures associated with the use of the company’s product, barbecue grills. Because of the high temperature that the painted product would ultimately be exposed to, many more common powder coatings would not work. The project increased worker safety, required less labor, increased their efficiency, and saved $2.8 million.

Section 4 – Applied Research

In following its guiding philosophy of serving as a catalyst organization, P2AD also facilitates various types of pollution prevention research. In the course of executing the Division’s various assistance programs, from time to time pollution problems which have no apparent answer are brought to the staff’s attention. P2AD attempts to recognize these problems as they present themselves, and to then enable research which will ultimately result in a solution to the problem.

One major effort to facilitate pollution prevention research has been P2AD’s involvement in the National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy, Environment, and Economics (NICE3) Grant Program, administered by the Department of Energy (DOE). Under the NICE3 program, funding is provided to state and industry partnerships for the development and commercial deployment of innovative technologies which use less energy and generate less waste. The program is designed to enhance the economic competitiveness of U.S. industry by promoting energy efficiency and clean production. In 1993 and again in 1994, projects sponsored by P2AD were selected for funding under this program. Both of these projects were completed during this reporting period.

Carpet Industry

The first of these P2AD-sponsored NICE3 projects demonstrated an improved process for the batch dyeing of nylon carpet. Dyeing is a fundamental process in carpet and textile manufacturing. It is a process requiring the use of significant quantities of water, chemicals, and energy. Scientific investigations have shown that, under controlled conditions, these materials can be reused rather than discarded after each batch of fiber or fabric is dyed. Carpet and textile manufacturers have expressed strong interest in the development of an automated dyebath reuse system to minimize the product inconsistencies, large labor costs, and slow production rates associated with manual reuse schemes.

Through the work of the Georgia Tech Research Institute and the School of Textile and Fiber Engineering, a prototype automated dyebath reuse system was developed, installed, and successfully operated at Shaw Industries, Plant No. 2 in Dalton, Georgia. Funding support was also provided by P2AD, Georgia Research Alliance, and Dalton Utilities. A team of Georgia Tech textile chemists, engineers, and computer scientists working in conjunction with technical specialists at Shaw spent approximately 36 months in the laboratory and plant developing, installing, and testing the prototype system. Trials showed that dyebaths can be reconstituted and reused without compromising the quality of the carpet produced, and that the reuse system can be successfully automated to eliminate most of the negatives associated with manual reuse schemes. Furthermore, data generated by the in-plant trials at Shaw indicated that the technology can reduce the cost of carpet dyeing by approximately three cents per pound. The actual savings for any one plant will depend on scheduling and the percentage of total production employing the technology. However, since the average commercial dyehouse may process as much as 50 million pounds of carpet per year, significant savings can be realized by the use of this technology. Additionally, the water savings helps reduce the manufacturing process effect in an area of limited water resources.

Pulp & Paper Industry

The second NICE3 project sponsored by P2AD focused on the pulp and paper industry, which ranks third in energy consumption among all U.S. industries. A significant portion of the energy used by the industry is devoted to recovering chemicals that can then be reused in the wood pulping process. Lime is a primary ingredient in the paper making process. It is used in breaking down wood chips into pulp. Spent lime, in the form of lime mud, can be regenerated and reused after heating it to very high temperatures, a process known as “calcining”. Once recovered, the lime can then be reused in the pulp making process. Plants that do not regenerate their lime must landfill their waste lime and purchase new lime. Industry wide, approximately two million tons of spent lime mud are sent to the landfill each year.

In 1994, DOE awarded a grant for the development of a new process for the recovery of lime in pulp and paper manufacturing. The process, called Advanced Mineral Calcining (AMC), was developed by Altex Technologies Corporation. Initial plans called for a subsequent demonstration of the technology at the Weyerhaeuser plant in Oglethorpe, Georgia. The project is a collaborative effort involving Altex, P2AD, Weyerhauser, J.C. Steele, Inc. (extrusion equipment manufacturer), and Svedala Industries (kiln manufacturer).

The conventional lime regeneration system involves the use of a rotary kiln to convert lime mud into fresh lime. In the AMC process, lime mud is formed into pellets which are dropped into a vertical kiln where they are dried and calcined. By using a vertical kiln, energy use is cut and emissions are reduced, thereby reducing operating costs. In addition, plants that do regenerate their lime will save money by avoiding purchases of new lime and costs associated with the landfill disposal of lime mud. Furthermore, the technology can be applied to other industries where lime is used, such as sugar production, soda ash manufacturing, and water treatment.

With the successful demonstration of these two technologies, a new phase in P2AD’s applied research effort begins. P2AD will soon begin technology transfer efforts, such as providing support for commercialization of the dyebath prototype system, and dissemination of information and and project data on both projects through videos, journal articles, fact sheets, industry-specific seminars, and conference presentations.

Chapter 4 – Program Activities

In addition to the generalized approaches of assistance, recognition, and applied research described in the first three chapters, P2AD also performed a number of specific program activities during this period. These activities were designed to address either reduction of specific types of waste (i.e. toxic), or reduction of wastes generated by a specific sector or region.

Section 1 – Toxic Waste Reduction

Since toxic waste poses a potential threat to human health and the environment, P2AD focused its initial assistance efforts on reducing the generation of toxic waste produced in the state. P2AD used a systematic approach to identify 21 high priority chemical wastes from the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), and the manufacturing sectors responsible for generating them. This Inventory requires certain businesses that manufacture, produce, or otherwise use listed toxic chemicals in excess of a specific threshold limit to report environmental releases of those chemicals to the state and federal government. These 21 chemicals accounted for approximately 80% of the total toxic releases in the state for the year analyzed.

The manufacturing sectors releasing high priority chemicals in Georgia were then ranked as either high, medium, or low priority. The six sectors identified as high priority sectors due to reported releases of the 21 chemicals were the following: printing and publishing, pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, fabricated metal products, transportation equipment, and rubber and plastic products. The P2AD engineering staff conducted in-depth assessments of each of the six high priority manufacturing sectors to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities in each sector. From this data, written information about typical P2 opportunities for each industry sector was or will be developed. The assessments also included case studies, such as Leggett and Platt, to provide examples of successful P2 implementation and the cost savings that can often be realized. Workshops for three of the high priority sectors were held to promote pollution prevention initiatives as opportunities to save money, improve operations, and protect the environment. In addition, information on pollution prevention for specific industry sectors was presented at relevant industry association meetings, conferences, on the Division’s Web page, and as requested by other organizations.

Leggett & Platt Case Study – VOC Elimination at Leggett and Platt

Summary – Leggett and Platt, Masterack Division, eliminated the use of volatile organic solvents at their Atlanta, Georgia facility. this was accomplished by installing an advanced powder coating process to replace an existing wet paint system. The powder coating provided improved product performance and reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to near zero.

Results – Paint sludge, solvent from wash-up, and VOC emissions were virtually eliminated. (In 1985, VOC emissions from the paint line exceeded 100 tons.) Other benefits include improved product quality at a comparable price, a safer working environment, and reduced paperwork and reporting requirements.

During this reporting period, P2AD also completed an analysis which compared TRI release data for the high priority chemicals from 1992 to 1995. Total high priority chemical waste generation in Georgia decreased from 99 million pounds in 1992 to 88 million pounds in 1995, representing an 11% reduction. Generation of 11 of the 21 high priority chemicals decreased and 10 increased in 1995 relative to 1992. High priority chemical waste reductions (1992-1995) are shown in Table 3. Decreases in high priority chemicals result from many factors. CFC-113 and 1,1,1-trichloroethane production were banned by the Montreal Protocol of 1990. Chlorine and chloroform have been reduced as a result of the paper industry’s decision to switch from using chlorine to chlorine dioxide in their processes. Tetrachloroethylene use is being phased out in the printing industry through the substitution of safer inks and cleaners. The use of methyl ethyl ketone as a handwipe solvent has been reduced in the aircraft industry by using hydrocarbon/terpene cleaners. Most of the larger industries are moving away from hazardous solvent cleaners to safer technologies such as: water jet washers, water-based cleaners, steam cleaning, dry ice/bicarbonate soda/grit blasting, and bioremediation.

Table 3

High Priority Chemical Waste Reductions (1992 – 1995)

CFC-113 100%
Chlorine 92%
1,1,1-trichloroethane 86%
Tetrachloroethylene 80%
Chloroform 60%
Hydrochloric acid 48%
Copper 33%
Methyl ethyl ketone 18%
Lead 16%
Methanol 6%
Xylene 3%

High priority chemical waste increases primarily occurred in the following manufacturing subsectors: industrial machinery (increases in chromium and nickel), transportation equipment (increases in chromium and trichloroethylene), rubber & plastic products (increases in dichloromethane), and primary metals (increases in zinc). These increases are at least partially attributable to higher production numbers and product quality concerns. Table 4 lists high priority chemical wastes which increased and the relative percentage of the increase between 1992 and 1995.

Table 4

High Priority Chemical Waste Increases (1992 – 1995)

Nickel 96%
Chromium 63%
Trichloroethylene 55%
Dichloromethane 45%
Zinc 35%
Formaldehyde 29%
Ammonia 22%
Toluene 21%
Styrene 17%
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone 1%

Overall high priority sector waste generation has decreased in Georgia by 16%. Table 5 shows industry sectors and their individual percent changes during this period.

Table 5 – High Priority Sector Waste Generation

High Priority Sectors Total 1992 Pounds Total 1995 Pounds % Change
Pulp and Paper




Chemical and Allied Products




Transportation Equipment




Rubber and Plastic




Fabricated Metal




Printing and Publishing










The 2% increase in overall TRI and high priority wastes for the pulp and paper industry is believed to have been influenced by changes in production and emissions factors used to calculate releases. Total high priority chemical generation by the printing industry increased 52%, but this can be attributed primarily to one company. With this company excluded, total high priority chemical generation by the printing and publishing sector decreased by 74% from 1992 to 1995.

Medium priority sector releases totaling 30,501,908 pounds in 1995 were reduced 19% from 1992. These sectors include manufacturers of primary metals, electronic equipment, furniture and fixtures, stone, clay and glass, and industrial machinery.

Low priority sectors, consisting of industries such as food, textile products, apparel products, and petroleum products, released 9,065,350 pounds of high priority wastes in 1995, which was a 73% increase over 1992.

P2AD will continue to provide technical assistance to the manufacturing sectors in Georgia that release the largest quantities of high priority chemicals. Proposed future expansion of the TRI chemical list and additiona of other Standard Industrial Codes (SICs) will likely generate increased interest in pollution prevention activities by all business sectors. Added emphasis will be placed on providing assistance within the subsectors that show an increase in high priority waste.

Section 2 – Solid Waste Reduction

In 1990, the Georgia General Assembly enacted the Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act (the Act), which established two dramatically new directions for solid waste management in Georgia:

– First, it provided legislative support to adopt new, more environmentally protective landfill standards consistent with federal requirements; and

– Second, the Act established, for the first time a statewide goal to reduce the amount of municipal solid waste being sent to disposal facilities and set forth a host of activities designed to accomplish this goal.

Since passage of the Act, a number of significant changes have occurred that affect solid waste management policy. By 1994, it was apparent that significant strides had been made toward improving solid waste management in Georgia and reducing solid waste disposal requirements. However, it was also apparent that goals and activities needed to be adjusted to meet the established goal of reducing the amount of solid waste being sent to disposal facilities by 25%. It had also become apparent that well over half of the waste being landfilled each year originated from non-residential sources, meaning that programs and activities that focused mainly on the residential sector would not be successful in achieving the state goal by themselves. Furthermore, the establishment of P2AD in 1993 had expanded the focus and ability of the state to encourage waste reduction. As a result, three major shifts in direction were made which will guide the state’s activities over the next five years:

– the evolving role of local governments in the solid waste management field and the resultant changing need for state assistance;

– the expanding ability of the state to work with the commercial and industrial sectors to reduce the waste they generate; and

– improved methods for monitoring, reporting, and tracking waste reduction progress.

To serve as a forum for coordinating activities, sharing information, and mobilizing state resources, the Department of Community Affairs (DCA), EPD, P2AD, the Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority (GEFA), the Association County Commissioners of Georgia (ACCG), and the Georgia Municipal Association (GMA) established the Intergovernmental Solid Waste Coordinating Council. The four state agencies also agreed to a MOU concerning solid waste management and waste reduction responsibilities. Subsequently, the four state agencies updated the Georgia Solid Waste Management Plan to reflect the agreed-upon changes in responsibilities and direction.

Under the MOU, P2AD’s responsibilities have been expanded to include providing assistance in industrial, commercial, and institutional waste reduction; developing programs and activities to encourage businesses and industries to implement waste reduction measures; preparing a strategic plan outlining strategies to reduce waste in the industrial, commercial/institutional, and agricultural sectors; implementing a household hazardous waste prevention and management program; and implementing a used automotive fluids management program.

Non-hazardous industrial solid waste consists of manufacturing related process waste and non-process waste (e.g. plastic packaging, pallets, cardboard, etc.). In 1995, there were an estimated 10,000 manufacturers within the state. Commercial sources of solid waste include office buildings, retail, and service establishments. Institutional sources include schools and universities, libraries, hospitals, government agencies, and prisons. According to Department of Labor statistics, there were approximately 180,000 commercial businesses in Georgia at the end of 1995. Typical solid wastes from these sources include office paper, food wastes, laboratory wastes, etc.

During this reporting period, P2AD, DCA, and EPD conducted a number of cooperative efforts to gather information on the types and amounts of solid waste being disposed in Georgia. In June of 1996, a survey was conducted of the state’s 128 permitted landfills. Landfill operators reported that approximately 39% of the waste disposed in their landfills came from residential sources, 37% from commercial sources, and 20% from industrial sources. In addition to solid waste disposed at municipal solid waste and construction and demolition landfills, a large amount of non-hazardous industrial solid waste is disposed in the approximately 45 on-site private industry landfills. The majority of these on-site landfills are operated by the pulp and paper industry, the electric utilities, and the mining industry.

Targeted Solid Waste Streams

After reviewing the results of the landfill survey, P2AD decided to focus its solid waste reduction efforts on five waste streams:

– textile waste

– wood waste

– construction and demolition waste

– food processing waste

– wastewater treatment sludge.

These five waste streams represent materials that are currently disposed in significant quantities in the state’s landfills and are generated primarily from non-residential sources. For an example of textile solid waste reduction efforts by a particular textile company (Synthetic Industries in Chickamauga), see the case study box.

Case Study – Reduction Approach – Synthetic Industries

In 1994, Synthetic Industries (SI) created a program called S.I.E.R.R.A., which stands for Synthetic Industries Environmental Resource Reduction Action. Initially, eight employee teams were formed at the Chickamauga facility to focus on reducing and reusing materials ranging from office paper and cardboard to lubricants and packaging products. The program’s success at this facility led to its implementation at all other company facilities within a year. The teams identify wastes, determine quantities and costs of the wastes, investigate alternatives that reduce the waste, and use financial analysis to choose the best solution.

During the first year of the program, solid waste contributions to the landfill were reduced by 22 percent over the previous year. In 1996, to list just a few achievements, SI recycled over 1,000,000 pounds of metal, repelletized over 11,000,000 pounds of polypropylene, and saved more than 700,000 pounds of cardboard by reusing material cores in their plant operation.

The Division’s initial efforts in promoting solid waste reduction began in FY 97, and include:

– initiated development of assessments for each of the five targeted waste streams. The assessments will include the following: a profile of the waste generators; a characterization of the waste stream and current management practices; identification of opportunities for waste reduction and recycling markets needs for materials diverted from disposal; and a preliminary strategy for encouraging waste reduction.

– documented successful waste reduction strategies to be distributed as models and case studies for use by other Georgia firms

– established partnerships with associations and organizations such as the Metro Area Keep America Beautiful Partnership to develop training and outreach programs.

Additionally, in response to HB 57 from the 1997 legislative session, P2AD in cooperation with EPD has developed a plan to encourage the recycling of asphalt shingles. It is estimated that 216,000 – 330,000 tons of asphalt shingle scrap are generated in Georgia annually. This material is generally recyclable and could be used as a component in the production of 4.1 to 6.3 million tons of hot mix asphalt. To encourage the recovery and reuse of asphalt shingle scrap, P2AD is proposing a demonstration project, and technical assistance and educational program promoting the opportunities and benefits of asphalt shingle recycling.

To enhance the development of markets for materials which are diverted from disposal, P2AD has developed a demonstration project to establish an industrial recycling network in the Atlanta metropolitan area. This project builds on the established successful partnerships P2AD has with DCA, the Department of Industry, Trade, and Tourism, and the Georgia Environmental Partnership. This project, serving as a model for establishing future networks throughout the state, involves five steps:

  1. assessing existing industrial feedstock needs, on-site industrial recycling operations, and waste streams being generated by the principal industrial facilities, as well as the number and type of secondary materials processors and end-users located within the project area;
  2. providing the necessary research, technology transfer, and technical assistance to facilitate and maximize potential material exchanges, feedstock conversion, and recycling/reuse opportunities;
  3. facilitating cooperative recycling arrangements to combine small quantity waste streams, thus creating new market opportunities and providing greater economic incentives for processors and end-users to (re)locate to the project area;
  4. identifying market voids and market expansion opportunities; and
  5. actively recruiting new secondary material processors and end-users to satisfy identified market needs.

Recognizing the potential for using industrial by-products in agricultural applications, P2AD sponsored or supported several demonstration waste reduction projects fostering partnerships between industry and agriculture. These projects included:

– demonstrating the benefits of diverting demolished building wall board for use as a soil amendment on peanut farms. Results to date indicate that its use provides an economical alternative to disposal. Just as important, it provides a source of calcium, which is beneficial to the production of peanuts and other crops.– establishing a pilot biomass composting project testing the effectiveness of composting agricultural and urban waste materials with wastewater sludge. Various mixtures of biosolids, cotton gin trash, and mulched yard debris are being tested to determine which mixes compost most rapidly and emit the least odor.

– identifying alternatives to the disposal of poultry waste as important considerations in supporting the stability and growth of this industry as well as statewide waste reduction efforts.

Section 3 – Household Hazardous Waste and Radon

Household Hazardous Waste Prevention and Management Program

Household hazardous waste (HHW) is an ignitable, corrosive, reactive, or toxic product which is discarded from a residence. Examples of common household hazardous wastes are paint, batteries, cleaners, and pesticides.

In September 1996, the Applied Research Center at Georgia State University completed a state-wide survey about household hazardous waste for P2AD. Respondents were asked how they disposed of various categories of HHW, such as batteries, paint, and pesticides. The majority of respondents in each of these categories indicated that they disposed of the items by putting them in their household garbage. Most respondents stated that they had HHW because they purchased too much of the product. Survey results have been used to guide development of the education portion of the HHW program. In keeping with the Division’s philosophy of preventing waste generation, state activities are focused on prevention and proper management, rather than the collection of household hazardous waste. Technical assistance is available for local governments or other groups that wish to host a collection event or a regular collection program.

Building on the survey and recommendations from a past work group, P2AD formally initiated its Household Hazardous Waste Prevention and Management Program. Objectives of the program are discussed below. During this reporting period, Division staff also participated in a regional HHW group sponsored by the Southern States Energy Board, and on an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) national committee to write a HHW standard.

Elements of the Household Hazardous Waste Prevention and Management Program are as follows:

– Inform the general public about the prevention and the proper management of household hazardous waste, and

– increase awareness about threats to the environment and health from improper use or disposal of household hazardous products.

These two elements will be accomplished by developing a public awareness program, and by producing educational materials focused on prevention and management of household hazardous wastes which can be incorporated into existing state educational materials. Materials will inform the public about wiser purchasing habits, more efficient use of products, safer storage habits, and new ideas for reusing leftover products besides disposal.

– Provide technical assistance to local governments and businesses.

P2AD’s role is to enhance and support local governments’ HHW activities, not to replace or duplicate their efforts. Local governments and other appropriate local groups (in particular the Georgia Keep America Beautiful local affiliates and the County Extension Offices), are the primary points of contact for citizens. One of the program’s primary tasks is to develop and disseminate materials that will provide local governments and groups with easy-to-use, current information about HHW. During 1997, the Guide to Best Management Practices for Household Hazardous Waste and Radon was published by P2AD. The guide contains information on source reduction, recycling and proper disposal, how to choose product alternatives, how to read product labels, existing local government HHW programs, and poison prevention information. The guide is divided into eight broad product categories. Each product page contains information on product function, ingredients, source reduction options, reuse and recycling tips, and disposal methods. Almost 1,000 copies of the guide have been distributed throughout the state, including to the following groups: county extension agents, health departments, recycling coordinators, Keep America Beautiful affiliates, wastewater pretreatment coordinators, and EPD offices.

P2AD began development of a network in Georgia to facilitate the dissemination of information and materials to those individuals who typically respond to citizens’ needs on HHW. During FY 96 – 97, Division staff made presentations to more than ten separate groups about HHW, and a list of contacts throughout the state was compiled. Division staff also worked to maintain and update Information Center material pertaining to HHW. This material is currently available to local governments and the public upon request.

Radon Awareness Program

Radon is a radioactive gas that occurs naturally in the environment. According to the U.S. Surgeon General, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. Furthermore, the U.S. Congress’ long-term goal for radon is to have indoor radon levels be at or below outdoor background levels. A survey conducted by EPA in 1988/1989 found that 15 percent of homes in North Georgia had concentrations of radon greater than EPA’s action level of 4pCi/L (picocuries per liter of air). Less than 10 percent of homes tested in the rest of the state had measurements greater than 4pCi/L.

P2AD is the lead state agency for radon awareness. The Division assumed this responsibility from the Department of Human Resources in 1996, under written approval from the Governor. The mission of the Division’s radon program is to inform the public about the health risks associated with radon, to increase awareness about and encourage testing for radon, and to support local government efforts to address radon issues in their communities.

P2AD worked closely with the Association County Commissioners of Georgia to provide technical assistance to local governments regarding radon issues and distribute radon information to local governments. ACCG promoted radon awareness through public service announcements, presentations, and workshops throughout the state, and developed a list of radon contacts from 75 counties in Georgia.

In 1997, P2AD awarded grants to five local governments and community-based organizations in Georgia to promote radon awareness. The Radon Awareness Grants are intended to increase awareness about the health threats associated with exposure to radon, encourage citizens to test for radon, and support local governments’ and community-based organizations’ efforts to address radon issues in their communities. The Radon Awareness Grant is a one-to-one matching grant program. A list of the Radon Awareness Grant recipients and a summary of their projects follows.

– Augusta/Richmond County Clean & Beautiful – implement radon awareness month, host radon segments on TV, and develop a public service announcement, flyer and fact sheet on radon.– City of Smyrna – develop a public service announcement for Cobb County’s public access channel, test city buildings, and distribute radon information in water bills.

– Community Action Revitalization & Enterprise Center of Savannah – develop radon awareness curricula for elementary schools and fact sheets for parents (designed to be used as a pilot for other counties with elevated radon levels).

– DeKalb County – develop county-specific and multi-cultural educational materials, partner with others in DeKalb to educate the community, and facilitate training for home builders and realtors about radon.

– Sumter County Clean & Beautiful – sponsor training classes on radon, distribute literature at local college events, and conduct awareness presentations at parent/teacher organization meetings.

During this reporting period, the Division also helped to found the Georgia Indoor Air Coalition. The mission of the Coalition is, “To promote awareness of the health risks and liabilities associated with indoor air pollutants and improve indoor air quality in Georgia through: education, community-based programs, building codes, and legislation.” The Coalition holds monthly meetings; its members include governmental, non-profit, and private organizations.

Section 4 – Agricultural Pollution Prevention

Over the last two years, the partnership between P2AD and the University of Georgia Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (Ag P2 Program) has developed into a program that is beginning to have a major effect on the incorporation of pollution prevention into the agricultural community. During this reporting period, the program responded to more than 140 requests for technical assistance, resulting in over 40 on-site visits. Many of these site visits resulted in management or design changes that have in some way reduced the environmental impact of agriculture. Outreach efforts included the publication of 25 documents, and presentations by staff at 42 events.

Managing Animal Waste

Animal waste is the largest agricultural by-product of Georgia animal production industries, with an estimated 34 million tons generated annually. A major accomplishment of the Ag P2 Program that is also expected to pay future dividends was the establishment of the AWARE team. AWARE stands for Animal Waste Awareness in Research and Extension. The overall objective of the AWARE Team is: “To facilitate awareness of animal waste issues to research scientists, Extension personnel, industry representatives, and producers, and to serve as a catalyst for providing economically and environmentally sound waste utilization solutions to Georgia’s animal production industry.” This objective has been met through various activities, including a quarterly newsletter, a Web page (, an electronic list serve, various field days and demonstrations, and conferences and workshops directed toward specific aspects of animal waste management. To date, the largest activity the team has sponsored was the 1997 Southeastern Sustainable Animal Waste Management Workshop, held in Tifton, Georgia on February 11-13. This successful event had more than 250 attendees, over 50 speakers, and over 25 exhibits and posters on display. Feedback from a post-conference survey indicated that all attendees thought the workshop was good or excellent, and all thought it would have a significant (41%), or some (59%), effect on their profession or farm. In addition to supplying these proactive educational opportunities, the AWARE team has also become a source of unbiased information on animal waste management matters, and several industries and producers have consulted with team members on a variety of issues.

The Ag P2 program published the following documents regarding animal waste management during FY 96-97:

– Nutrient Management Planner Computer Program to aid in the land application of animal waste.

– Commonly Asked Questions Concerning Poultry Litter Utilization

– Proceedings of the Southeastern Sustainable Animal Waste Management Workshop, EPA Document No. #904-R-97-001, 325 pages.


The Georgia Farm Assessment System (Farm*A*Syst) is an interagency partnership that provides Georgia’s farmers with information and a voluntary means to become environmentally proactive in managing their farms. This program, like the national program that it is modeled after, focuses on identifying potential sources of ground water contamination, supplying information on corrective actions, and ultimately encouraging the farmer to formulate an action plan to address the identified concerns. Georgia Farm*A*Syst consists of twenty individual written assessments that focus on specific areas, such as Water Quality, Storage and Handling Practices, Animal Production, and Land Management. Farmers can pick and choose from the twenty different assessments to compile an assessment package that is applicable to their particular situation. Each of the areas can be considered independently or in any combination. The Georgia program has expanded on the national program in order to address additional areas of environmental concern such as surface water and air quality. The program also established a quarterly newsletter and a web page, both of which provide updates on the Georgia Farm*A*Syst program, and encourage farmers to conduct the assessments.

To date, eleven of the twenty written assessments have been developed. These eleven address the following areas: drinking water wells, irrigation systems, water quality for the rural resident, layer production, broiler production, petroleum storage and handling, and management of dairies, poultry operations, irrigation systems, and pesticide use. Over 1,000 copies of the assessment packages have been distributed, resulting in more than 50 completed individual farm assessments.

In Georgia the program is being piloted by County Extension professionals in Gwinnett County, the Gum Creek Hydrologic Unit (Crisp and Dooly Counties), and the Little River Rooty Creek Hydrologic Unit (Morgan and Putnam Counties). Additionally, federal cost-share funding is available for farmers to do wellhead protection activities, but completion of the Georgia Drinking Water Well assessment is required before the farmer can receive funding.

Bioconversion and By-product Utilization

Land application of both agricultural and industrial by-products is often an environmentally sound method of reclaiming the nutrients in a by-product and diverting these materials from landfills. The Ag P2 program has been very active in promoting this approach to by-product management in Georgia. At the University of Georgia Agricultural Showcase, several displays and exhibits focused on the benefits of land utilization of by-products to the agricultural and non-agricultural community. Utilization plots of ten different municipal, industrial, and agricultural by-products such as poultry litter, biosolids, compost blends, pulp and paper by-products, and wallboard were established and the results were shared with over 1,500 people throughout the state. In Coffee County, GEFA is funding a biosolids composting facility, and the Ag P2 program has committed to working closely with the county to train the facility operators and develop agricultural markets for the product. In another GEFA-funded project in Sumter County, waste wallboard is being processed and land applied as a gypsum substitute on peanuts. A one farm 1997 demonstration project will be expanded for FY 98.

Some by-products must be processed or converted to facilitate their beneficial use. The newly established Bioconversion Research and Demonstration center at the University of Georgia is working closely with the Ag P2 program to supply the applied research and education necessary to develop successful value-added processes for such materials. The program also initiated development of an interdisciplinary Center for Land Utilization of By-Products (CLUB) to support and promote the Bioconversion Center. Other activities that the program was involved with during the reporting period include:

– worked with a county Extension agent from Brantley County to set up a Composting Cooperative to share composting equipment among various farmers.– served on the Georgia Water and Pollution Control Association’s Residuals Recycling Committee and led committee development of a white paper on the opportunities and impediments to greater utilization of biosolids.

– wrote two publications titled “Best Management Practices for Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment” and “Recommended Practices for using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment” that facilitate the process of land applying wood ash as a lime substitute.

Other Program Highlights

Other highlights from the Ag P2 program included:

– established the University of Georgia College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences as the first University Partner in the EPA Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP).– began assisting Gilmer and Pickens Counties on a GEFA-funded Poultry Mortality Disposal project that is investigating environmentally sound methods of utilizing the 6,000 tons of mortality waste generated in these counties each year.

– worked with a DNR-appointed Plastics Disposal Committee that will continue to develop alternatives to landfilling of agricultural mulch plastics.

– developed a testing project in which well water quality on poultry farms is analyzed. Testing has been completed with three major poultry integrators, and results indicated that about 4% of wells are high in nitrate-nitrogen. At each location that tested high, the Ag P2 program arranged for detailed site assessments to address or correct practices that are impacting water quality.

– coordinated the Georgia Sustainable Agriculture Professional Development Training Program. This is a federally-funded program that provides “train-the-trainer” type educational programs on sustainable agriculture throughout Georgia.

– established partnerships with the Georgia Conservation Tillage Alliance, the Georgia Integrated Pest Management Program, and the Georgia Organic Growers Association to assist with their statewide programs.

– appointed University of Georgia liaison to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service, and served on state Technical Committee that oversees most federal USDA programs such as the Environmental Quality Incentive Program and the Conservation Reserve Program.

Horticulture Program

P2AD has also partnered with the University of Georgia’s Ornamentals Working Group to promote pollution prevention in the state’s horticultural, or “green” industry. Initially, the environmental status of the horticultural industry with respect to pollution prevention was evaluated using a written assessment document. During 1995, the Ornamentals Working Group at the Georgia Experiment Station conducted a survey of pesticide use practices by the lawn care and landscape management firms in the metro Atlanta area. Survey results provided a list of pesticides and fertilizers applied to urban landscapes along with the amounts, relative frequency, and decision criteria for pesticide applications. Key pests and plants were identified by respondents. Respondent opinions on the opportunities for, and impediments to, the implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in urban landscapes were also listed.

Another major project was the establishment of Landscape Management Plots at the Georgia Station Research & Education Garden during 1995. Growers in the state donated trees and other materials for the garden plots, and initial P2AD grant funds were leveraged to obtain over $214,000 in funding for the development of the Garden. Test plots focused on all elements of an urban landscape, including turf, annuals, perennials, ornamentals, and shade trees. Pest management strategies and resistant plant materials were also studied. Plot results indicated that the use of resistant plant materials and attention to appropriate cultural conditions for specific plants reduced pest populations in the landscape, thereby reducing the need for pesticide intervention.

During 1996, the Landscape Management Plots were used in training sessions and public presentations to educate growers and the general public about the benefits and methods of reducing pesticide use in landscaping. Hands-on training for landscape professionals in IPM was conducted at the Garden during October 1996. In 1997, members of the Ornamentals Working Group collected, consolidated, and adapted educational materials from around the United States to develop an educational kit for commercial landscape management professionals. This kit includes a 200-page notebook on insect, disease, and weed management using IPM principles; a weed identification book; a turf weed and insect identification “flash” card set; and a scouting kit. These materials were field tested in spring and summer 1997 by 10 landscape professionals participating in a pilot project on implementation of IPM practices, and later revised based on their feedback.

Section 5 – Neighborhood Environmental Partnership

In 1996, an EPA Environmental Justice through Pollution Prevention Grant was awarded to the City of Atlanta. As a result of that grant, a Neighborhood Environmental Partnership (NEP) program was formed between the City, local industry, and neighborhood residents in two low-income, minority neighborhoods. P2AD, city staff, and the Clark/Atlanta University Southern Center for Studies in Public Policy serve as resources to the NEP.

One objective of the grant is to promote the adoption of pollution prevention practices by industries in the neighborhoods. Another objective is to provide a forum for both community residents and surrounding industry to discuss environmental and other issues of community concern and to provide a vehicle to address them.

The project area identified for the NEP is in West Atlanta, zipcodes 30336 and 30318. These areas were identified based on the density of manufacturers located in the two low-income, minority neighborhoods. This area has more than 200 public and private industry sites and the city’s highest concentration per capita of industries. Printers and metal fabricators are two major industries within these zipcodes.

P2AD has provided significant support on the City of Atlanta’s Environmental Justice grant over the last two years. During FY 96-97, the City and P2AD have held a series of separate Community Leader and Industry Leader meetings to sensitize each group about the concerns of the other, and to identify community issues of concern. During the last six months, the two groups have been brought together to establish the Neighborhood Environmental Partnership (NEP).

The systematic process used by the City, Clark/Atlanta University, and P2AD has been successful in developing a mechanism for industry and neighborhood groups to communicate in a non-adversarial atmosphere. As a bonus, the NEP is in the process of preparing an agreement to work together at resolving community problems. This process will serve as a model for other low-income, minority communities in the state and business to view each other as community resources, and work together to address issues of concern.

In addition to support with the Industry Leaders Committee, P2AD has also offered a variety of workshops for printers, wood finishers, and metal fabricators in the NEP area. P2AD has provided on-site pollution prevention assistance to companies in the area, and two of the companies on the Industry Leaders Group have been certified into P2AD’s Pollution Prevention Partners program for recognized environmental achievements. Finally, P2AD has recently been awarded an EPA Jobs Through Recycling grant to stimulate recycling market development in the NEP project area.

Chapter 5 – A Look Forward

Over the past four years, P2AD has developed a very valuable service for the business community and the people of Georgia. Our non-regulatory program depends on the willingness of companies to work with us. Companies are not required to implement any of our suggestions, but most do. Our pollution prevention options not only reduce their waste, but often show a significant bottom line return as a bonus. This message must be sinking in because during FY 96-97 over 1,000 requests for technical assistance were received. Of this number over 100+ site visits have been completed, with reductions in waste streams at some companies exceeding 50%.

As we move forward we are very excited about the opportunities that lie ahead and are developing programs to be ready for these opportunities. The discussion below will highlight many of the efforts that are in their infancy or are envisioned.

Manufacturing Sector

The manufacturing sector has been and will continue to be the main focus of the programs at P2AD. Over 50% of our resources in FY 96-97 were used to provide non-regulatory technical assistance to manufacturers in reducing wastes, increasing efficiency, and improving their bottom line. In some cases, clients that instituted comprehensive pollution prevention programs had savings in excess of $2,000,000 per year, while implementation of individual pollution prevention options presented to other companies resulted in savings of over $200,000. This payback is significant even for larger companies.

On-site Assessments

Early on it became obvious to us that our services were needed by the large corporations as much as by smaller companies. Although big companies usually have strong technical resources, they are generally focused on producing a product or ensuring compliance with existing environmental regulations. We have also found that some larger companies have weak communication channels with employees, and as a result, have difficulty implementing corporate pollution prevention commitments. Therefore, many medium and larger companies seem to seek out P2AD’s assistance more for a technical facilitation role: to help them with waste reduction teams and to identify cost effective solutions for reducing waste. Our work with these industries results in the largest reductions in wastes and the greatest cost savings. Routine assessments for smaller companies are shared with our GEP partners, leaving P2AD’s resources available to deal with the more complex pollution prevention projects.

Although we continue to provide assessments for any company that requests help, we are also focusing our assessment work more around waste generation problems that affect a large number of companies within the same industry. The BOD/COD reduction project in Dalton is an example of our efforts in this area. We hope to transfer this approach to assist in reducing waste in other important industries in the state, such as the mining industry, the pulp and paper industry, and others. We also are working closely with a cross-section of industries in various geographic areas of the state to reduce waste that may affect watersheds, regional air quality, or low-income, minority populations. The City of Atlanta’s Neighborhood Environmental Partnership (NEP) is a good illustration of this approach.

Recycling Market Development

Although there is an adequate recycling infrastructure in Georgia for commodities such as glass, plastic, and aluminum, the recycling markets for a number of manufacturing waste streams are not well developed or are not being used effectively. P2AD and Georgia State University are undertaking an economic analysis of scrap tires to identify potential market development opportunities. Landfill surveys also indicated that significant amounts of textile, wood, construction, food processing wastes, and municipal biosolids were still being discarded. Most of these materials can be reused or recycled into value-added products. P2AD and GEP are beginning a major effort to more accurately identify regional waste generation characteristics in order to identify source reduction options, higher value-added uses for these industrial by-products, and recycling market development needs. Because it differs significantly from the other four sectors, efforts in the reduction of construction and demolition wastes will include outreach to the housing, demolition, and builders’ groups, all of which will be new audiences for P2AD assistance.

The regional environmental networks established through the GEP will serve as the cornerstone for the development of regional waste exchanges. Information gathered through GEP waste characterization assessments will provide the basis for identification of major regional waste streams and potential reuse opportunities with other manufacturers and recyclers. Recycling market voids will become evident during this process, and P2AD and its partners will work closely with the public and private sectors to develop markets around these industrial by-products.

Waste Reduction Research Coordination

As part of its core strategy, P2AD promotes applied research that fills technology gaps impeding the implementation of waste reduction options. We serve as catalysts in identifying industry and university partners to conduct demonstration projects on viable waste reduction technologies or seek to demonstrate value-added uses for industrial by-products. Two DOE NICE3 grants administered by P2AD were successfully completed this year. These projects should result in substantial reductions in wastes and provide quick economic returns for the textile and the pulp and paper industry.

As part of its technical assistance services, P2AD and its GEP partners will provide greater support in the identification of potential state and federal funding sources; in establishing partnerships to develop research projects; providing assistance in drafting proposals; providing technical direction and administrative support for selected projects; and in finding industrial applications for new and emerging waste reduction technologies.

Full Cost Accounting

P2AD’s primary mission is to assist business in reducing wastes to improve the environment; however, it is apparent that the main driver in the business decision-making process is economics. Therefore, in order to achieve our environmental objectives, our assistance always seeks waste reduction solutions that result in a substantial payback to the company. In order to identify these cost effective options, a company must understand the true costs of their products and wastes. Many companies apply waste management costs to general overhead categories, and so cannot accurately evaluate the true costs of their individual products and services.

Recently, P2AD completed a Full Cost Accounting (FCA) pilot project with the Southwire Company, which determined the total waste-related costs at one of its facilities. The process involved the development of a methodology to accumulate, allocate, and evaluate waste-related costs for decision-making purposes. The model was provided to other Southwire facilities around the country. These facilities, using FCA tools, have successfully developed comprehensive pollution prevention programs with savings now being tallied in the millions of dollars. Additionally, many of Southwire’s facilities around the country are being officially recognized for their environmental achievements.

To transfer these tools to other Georgia businesses, we will complete a general waste management cost guide to assist industry in using FCA and Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodologies. After waste-related costs are gathered, this guide can be used to better allocate environmental overhead to waste streams, products, and processes. The guide then can be used to apply accurate cost information to decision making processes such as the evaluation of pollution prevention options. These FCA tools will be disseminated through P2AD’s newsletter, technical case studies, and presentations at regional network meetings and seminars. A comprehensive workshop targeted to financial decision makers, such as accounting and plant managers, will be developed to enhance their understanding of the benefits of FCA. These tools may also be incorporated into MBA programs for mid and upper level managers at Georgia Tech and Georgia State.

Commercial and Institutional Sectors

As part of the restructuring of the solid waste responsibilities in the state, P2AD assumed the lead state role for commercial/institutional solid waste reduction issues. Presently, there is little definitive information on the makeup of the commercial and institutional solid wastes being disposed in municipal solid waste landfills. Landfill surveys across the state indicate that approximately 35% of the estimated 9 million tons of waste disposed in Georgia’s municipal landfills is generated by commercial businesses.

P2AD will seek to identify specific solid waste streams in the various regions around the state for office parks, retail centers, and other commercial businesses. This information will be used to identify waste reduction strategies and market development opportunities. Specific waste reduction programs will be developed as information concerning waste generation is gathered. It is likely that these efforts will use the basic approaches established by P2AD in addressing waste streams in the manufacturing sector.

P2AD will expand efforts to introduce pollution prevention into state agencies. We will continue working closely with DNR’s Division of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Sites to promote waste reduction at state parks. We are coordinating with other state agencies as they optimize operations to minimize generation of volatile organic compounds under the Voluntary Ozone Action Program. We will also present a series of workshops to assist state vehicle maintenance facilities in reducing their reliance on chlorinated solvents, and to encourage implementation of other waste reduction options.

Department of Defense

At the federal level, P2AD has entered into a formal partnership with the Department of Defense (DoD) installations within Georgia. The DoD bases within Georgia represent one of the state’s largest “industrial” sectors and also one of its largest economic resources. The impetus for the partnership was Ms. Sherri Goodman’s, Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Environmental Security, proclamation for advancing pollution prevention as the main tool to achieve environmental compliance in the military sector. The objective of the DoD Partnership is to create a working relationship that recognizes and promotes pollution prevention as the standard way of doing business. The Partnership will use inter-service waste reduction teams to develop and implement model pollution prevention initiatives, improve communications, refine business practices, and track performance.

Agricultural Sector

P2AD and its partners at UGA’s Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering will expand pollution prevention assistance to agribusiness operations and the individual farmer to reduce pollution from pesticides, sediment, and nutrients. Integrated pest management, best management practices, and other sustainable agriculture programs will be developed, and the waste reduction information disseminated to the agriculture community through existing Extension offices, workshops, and other outreach channels.

Another major focus of the program will seek to increase agricultural utilization of municipal, industrial, and agricultural by-products. P2AD’s recycling market development efforts will be closely coordinated with the activities at UGA’s Centers for Bioconversion and By-Product Utilization. These Centers seek to develop value-added products from wastes that can serve as industrial feedstocks or can be used as soil amendments. By-products currently being evaluated include animal wastes, municipal biosolids, fly ash, wood ash, and a variety of other materials that have typically been disposed in landfills.

General Public

A huge factor in the waste reduction equation is the impact of the general public on waste generation by business and by themselves. Consumer acceptance is a major factor in the types of waste generated by manufacturers. For example, Weyerhauser’s Flint River operation, which manufactures fluff pulp used in diapers, could eliminate its bleaching process if consumer buying did not provide a competitive edge to white diapers. Industry is constantly faced with the decision to produce products that satisfy a consumer demand or produce products that may be environmentally benign but have little consumer interest. There is a lot of effort needed on the part of industry, public agencies, and the general public to find a compromise to this pollution prevention impediment.

The general public also generates wastes similar to those generated by business, such as solid wastes, hazardous wastes, wastewater, and air pollutants. P2AD has developed several programs aimed at instilling a pollution prevention ethic in the general population. One program is focused on promoting smart buying habits and proper management options for household hazardous wastes. This program stresses preventing the waste from being generated so that it does not have to be disposed. We are also working very closely with UGA’s Center for Urban Agriculture to develop and disseminate the latest information on integrated pest management and “low environmental impact” plants to the “green industry” and the general public. It will take time to influence consumer buying habits and waste generating activities; however, P2AD has programs in place to achieve its objective of instilling a pollution prevention ethic in the general public.

Building Blocks for Sustainability

P2AD’s “Formula For Success” provides a clear indication of our program focus over the next several years. The fundamental building blocks of industrial sustainability depend on the interaction of natural systems, industrial systems, and economic systems. As companies move into the future they will need to grow, but at the same time reduce their impact on the natural resources that sustain the quality of life. Not only must companies start evaluating the full consequences of their operations on the bottom line, but they also must begin to examine the effects of their product along its entire life cycle. Accomplishing this will require a broadening of the single media perspective to a more holistic view of industrial operations to allow reductions in all wastes while minimizing impacts on the environment.

A number of Georgia companies are taking leadership roles in industrial sustainability; however, two stand out. They are Weyerhauser’s Flint River facility, a kraft pulp mill, and Interface, a textile flooring manufacturer. The cornerstone of Weyerhauser’s sustainability effort is its Minimum Impact Manufacturing (MIM) program. The approach takes a holistic view of its waste streams and seeks to reduce emissions and discharges through a systematic analysis of process interactions. Specific industrial sustainability activities being examined by Weyerhauser include life cycle assessments and closed loop processing.

Interface’s goal is to produce zero waste. To accomplish this they are reexamining all of their waste generating processes to reduce and eventually eliminate waste. They are redesigning products and processes to simplify the amount of resources used, and are seeking to use by-products as industrial feedstocks in their production processes. They are viewing their operation as an industrial ecosystem intimately linked with natural and economic systems, in which someday they give back more than they take.

As P2AD and its partners prepare for the future, we will strive to learn the lessons of industrial sustainability from these industry leaders and others. We will then develop tools based on these lessons, and share them with our clients. It is clear that the linkages between industrial, natural, and economic systems must be understood in order to achieve sustainability. We must also understand the relationships and interactions among manufacturers, commercial and institutional operations, the agricultural sector, and the general public. All generate waste and by identifying areas of overlap we can share pollution prevention successes, increase by-product use, and decrease demands on natural resources. P2AD and its partners have many of these building blocks in place, and we are in an ideal position to move Georgia a step closer to sustainability. We are prepared to meet the challenges that lie ahead.