Prevention of Air Pollution
Air pollution is the largest single environmental health risk according to WHO, 2014. It is also a significant risk factor for various diseases that lead to disability and death. A number of scientific studies in the current decade have shown that air pollution leads to more premature deaths than previously thought.
Therefore, it is imperative to pursue authorities to reduce emissions of air pollutants and limit public exposure to air pollution. In 2015, outdoor air pollution caused the premature death of nearly 4.5 million people. By 2060, this figure may double or triple. Areas that will be most affected by air pollution are regions with high population densities and high concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone, such as the People’s Republic of China and India, and regions with aging populations. The global annual welfare costs associated with these premature deaths could rise from $ 5 trillion in 2015 to $ 18-25 trillion by 2060.
Theoratically, air pollution can affect the output of an economy in four ways. First, it can affect the size of the working population (due to death and migration). Second, it can reduce working hours per employee if the employee is sick and unable to work. Third, it can reduce the productivity of workers. Fourth, it can affect the quality of natural capital, which is one of the productive resources.
Finding the right policy responses becomes much more difficult, especially when public awareness rises and citizens expect government to act. In the European Union, for example, a recent environmental poll has shown that air pollution is the issue of greatest concern for citizens after climate change). Thus, expectations are heightened that effective measures will be taken at all levels to reduce air pollution and protect citizens from its harmful effects. In addition, reducing the health risks associated with poor air quality is critical to improving lives and well-being.
This article discusses the methods on how to control and prevent environmental pollution. The basic principles used to reduce negative impacts on water, air and soil quality will be given. Particular attention will be paid to the transition from pollution control to pollution prevention, and restrictions on the environment within buildings and structures.
Control of harmful substances to stop air pollution
The environmental consequences of rapid industrialization have led to countless incidents with soil, air and water due to contamination with toxic materials and other harmful substances. A serious threat to health hang over humans and ecosystems. The more extensive and intensive use of materials and energy has created cumulative pressure on the quality of local, regional and global ecosystems.
Before efforts had been made to limit exposure to hazardous substances, there was a period of noninterference pollution management with waste management to avoid significant local disasters, at least in the short term. The need for remediation measures was recognized for those cases that led to unacceptable changes in the environment. This was perceived as a step of intense industrialization and led to an understanding of the effects of the harmful substancesэ accumulation. The paradigm of environmental control has come to dominate as an approach to ecosystem management.
There are two specific concepts of environmental control:
- the absorption capacity, which proves the existence of specific levels of release into the environment that do not contribute to unacceptable effects on the environment and human health.
- a concept based on the principle of control, which assumes that environmental damage can be avoided by controlling the ways, time and rate at which harmful substances enter the environment.
Efforts are made to protect the environment when using hazardous substances control. Particular attention is paid to isolating pollution from the environment using stack filters and gas traps. This approach is aimed at individual components of environmental quality or emission limits. Besides, it is primarily aimed at point sources of environmental pollution (air, water, soil).
Technologies to control hazardous substances
The methods for controlling hazardous substances has shown its effectiveness, especially for local problems. The use of appropriate technologies is based on a systematic analysis of the source and nature of the discharge, its interaction with the ecosystem and attitude towards the problem of environmental pollution. Appropriate technologies are also being developed to smooth and monitor the impact of harmful substances.
The articles explain the importance and rationale of using a comprehensive approach to assessing and controlling point sources and non-point sources of air pollution. They also attach great importance to the problems that arise in countries that are rapidly industrializing and do not exercise strict control of harmful substances that accompany the rapid economy development.
Marion Wichman-Fiebig explains the methods that are used to simulate airborne emissions in order to define and characterize the nature of pollution problems. This forms the basis for understanding control issues and enables performance evaluation to be carried out. As the understanding of the potential impacts of hazardous substances deepens, the recognition of these impacts has spread from the local to the regional level and even to the global level.
Hans-Ulrich Pfeffer and Peter Bruckmann present equipment and methods used to monitor air quality. This makes it possible to assess the effectiveness of control, as well as to estimate the feasibility of measures to prevent pollution.
John Elias provides an overview of the types of air pollution control that can be used and the results that should be considered when selecting appropriate pollution control options.
Comprehensive waste management of enterprises
In the future, the control of hazardous substances implies taking into account the handling of waste, which is an unwanted by-product of the manufacturing process. It must be ensured that this waste does not affect soil, water and air.
In response to significant signs of severe pollution associated with improper waste management, the government has established standards for the collection, handling and disposal of waste to ensure environmental protection. Particular attention is paid to the criteria for safe disposal to preserve the environment through the use of sanitary burial, incineration and processing of hazardous waste.
There has been an increased focus on waste minimization and recycling to avoid the potential burden on the environment and increase the cost of waste disposal, and to promote more active management of scarce resources.
Moving towards pollution prevention
The use of chimneys is one means of reducing the risk of contamination. At the same time, chimneys can cause serious pollution problems. They can even be considered an indirect source of pollution. The elimination of chimneys can make a significant contribution to the cost of the production process without affecting other quantities. This is usually associated with regulatory regimes that contribute to the cost associated with administrative harmonization efforts.
The use of pollution control has made it possible in a short time to achieve significant success for local pollution problems. It is less effective at accumulating problems that are associated with local (eg acid rain) or global (eg ozone depletion) levels.